--------OTEC:OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERTER-------------------
A = Hot Water enters at 80'F
B = Evaporator Chamber @ .43 psi Water liquid->gas @ 80'F
    Hot water changes phase liquid -> gas
C = Hot Water leaves at 75'F

D = As water evaporates it rises through the demister dispersing molecules
E = The the evaporated water rises (since it is hot) it
    turns the Turbine
F = This turns Generator (which produces 59MW of electricity)

G = Cold Water enters at 40'F (from 3,300') 
H = The evaporated water goes through Condensor tubes coming into
    "contact" with 40'F water, so changes phase gas->liquid
I = Cold Water leaves at 45'F

 (DOE Dept of Energy's Idea)

    |               | FFF |               |
   |                \FFFFF/                |
   |        +++++++++++++++++++++++        |
   |__      ++++++++Turbine(E)+++++      __|
   |  --D---        /     \        ------  |
   |        ----    |     |    ----        |
   |     B          |     |                |
   |  |______| |\__ |     | __/| |______|  |
   |  |      | |\_H\|     |/__/| |      |  |
   |  |      | |   \|     |/   | |      |  |
   |  |      | |____|     |____| |      |  |
   |  |      | |    |     |    | |      |  |
   | A|      | |    |     |    | |      |  |
    /\       ||     |  G  |    ||
    ||       \/     |  /\ |    \/
             C      |  || |    I
                    |     |   
                    |     |   
                    |  /\ |   
                    |  || |   

++Energy from sea : surface waters boil @ .43 PSI @ 80'F gives vapors -> 
  expand -> drives a turbine -> spinning turbine powers dynamo -> 
  electric current.  (qv steam power, @ low Temp.  Cold water pumped 
  up from depths condenses the vapor).
++Boiling point of a liquid dependent on ambient air pressure, lower
  pressure around water -> lower boiling point. In open cycle, warm sea water 
  brought to vacuum chamber w/ 0.43 PSI -> boiling Temp sea water = 80F.
++In vacuum chamber, warm sea water boils, -> low temperature steam. 
  (the low T and low P -> "steam" is essentially water vapor), 
  so low pressure chamber called  "evaporator" (vs "boiler").
++Expanding water vapor turns a turbine which spins a generator.
++After turbine, water vapor passes -> tubes of a condenser.  In condenser 
  tubes is cold sea water pumped from ocean depths.  Warm water vapor condenses
  on cold tubes, making distilled water.  The change of phase, (vapor->liquid),
  drops pressure in system; boiling the warm sea water in evaporator, powering 
  the OTEC.
++Efficient OTEC produces 0.0017kwh of *NET* electric power per
  cubic foot of cold deep water it pumps up up .6kwh/m3.  

--------ARTIFICIAL UPWELLING----------------------------------
 (Brings Nutrients/Nitrogens from Ocean Bottom)  

++Nutrients at the base of the food chain leads to increases in the rest
++Upwelling Created by an anomaly of currents and geology.
++The OTECs create an artificial upwelling zone by bringing a 
  river of nutrient-rich cold water to the surface
++Nitrogen Key nutrient for all plants,
++Nitrogen is vital to plant metabolism.  Building block of all amino acids - 
  the backbone of proteins.
++Around 3,300 feet .4grams per cubic meter,
++The oceans of the world hold some 300million cubic miles of sea water.
++Marine colony pumps up 43 bil gallons of nitrogen laden water / day.  
  Nutrient concentration is low, 70tons of organic nitrogen to the surface.
  Free byproduct of the OTEC's energy production process. 
++Phytoplankton, can convert 78% of the N2 into protein.
  55tons of N2 converted into protein / day.  
  Algal protein, 13.4% is N2; (55 tons of N2) = (410 tons of algal protein).  
  Oceania produces 195000tons of dried algae / year, 

--------BIOSPHERE III-OCEAN COLONY----------------------------
  ( self sufficient colony Uses Spirulina to feed the world )

++Blue-green algae : simplest and the most successful.  Primitive life form 
  w/ no nucleus; genetic material floats freely.
++77% of world's biomass is algae.  90% of the photosynthetic activity 
++Spirulina platensis.  Blue-green alga.  Human food.  85% digestible. 
  2% ash, 5% moisture 6% fat, 7% minerals, 15% carbohydrate 65% protein.
++Retains 95% of its protein content after 7 years.

++Airships spherical balloon w/ H2 and provides buoyancy to counter the weight 
  of the ship.  Extra lift by spinning the balloon along its horizontal axis 
  direction opposite to the direction of travel.  A few of these air ships 
  will ferry protein powder to hungry people in remote parts of the world.
++Fleet of airships to carry protein concentrate into the remotest parts
  of earth.  Hydrogen-powered dirigibles.

++Benethic (bottom-dwelling ) algae.  -> Difficult to harvest.
++Shellfish feed on benthic algae
++Mithrax spinosissimus
++Crab and other shellfish. 
++1000gal sea water produces .186oz of shellfish meat.
++Production of lime needed for finishing plaster and to process magnesium.
++Chitin is a versatile
++Sea silk cultivate seaweeds rich in algin.
++Algin - films, gels, rubber, linoleum, cosmetics, polishes and 
  paints, creamy food additive, textile threads.
++Laminaria digitata, 50% algin.  produce 600tons/day 215000 tons exported.
++Fish - algae pressed into dried, pelletized fish feed.
++Foundation of diet = spirulina.
++Escherichia coli, make "flavanoids".  Isolate Aromatics that flavor food.
++Buoyant platforms - bubbles are packed together, hexagonal grid.

++Modularity - scale up replicating similar modules.
++Floating island = cluster of buoyant cells, The island is surrounded 
  by a lagoon of warm surface water, w/ mariculture ponds.
++Floats, buoyed by OTECs, subsurface habitats. Anchors hold island
  in place. Pipes bring cold water up from 3300' to power OTECS nourishing 
  marine life.
++open, wide-open, unrestricted areas, skylights.
++Transport pods, moving walkways, and elevators.
  Electric go-carts of on powered roller blades.
++Breakwater - breakwater, absorbing 55' storm waves. 
++Rows of underwater bubble habitats, membranes holding air.
++Decompressing in pressure chambers, by swimming freely in the
  0-gravity environment under water.

++Initial Platform (e.g. Large ship):  Once the OTEC is up 
  makes 60megawatts of net power. 50 MW of
  power available for the accretion of foundation
++Grow oceania not build it.
++Grow/Accretion of "sea-ment" by applying an electric current to a metal grid;
  calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and mineral ions dissolved in sea water bond 
  electrochemically to the charged metal, forming a cement-hard coating.
  sea water saturated with CaCO3 .  familiar in its common forms : calcite, 
  marble, limestone, seashells, and cement.
++Sea water forms electrolytic conductor connecting anode and cathode.  As 
  current flows through this circuit, reactions take place.  The accretion of 
  mineral matrix on the cathode (NaCl, SiO2, CaCO3, MGOH2).
  producting of hydrogen, oxygen and chlorine gas.
++Magnesium wire mesh spacing electrified at 189mA/ft^2.  Formed around Mg 
  reinforcing rods, & accreted in place forming structural building components.
++The skeleton formed of Mg extracted from sea water.   Sea water is 
  principle mineral ore for most Mg produced in the US.
  The process of extraction is simple : electrolyze sea water, w/ .13% MG 
  (2.6lb/ton) w/ CaCO3.  The input : sea water, CaCo3 and electricity;
  the outputs : magnesium & water.
++CaCO3 (lime) can be manufactured by heating sea shells)
++Magnesium is a wonderful metal.  Manganese alloy
++Solids dissolved in the world's oceans,
++Electro-deposition of sea-cement avoiding the logistical problems.
  Materials are extracted, processed, and positioned
++Constructed is the wire mesh framework - electrical fields 
++Plumbing, ventilation, electrical, pneumatic, and telecommunication
  conduits , wired to the mesh run along the shortest possible routes.
++Morphology - mesh and rebar form. free-form manner.
++Modern architecture , cube of space and then fill it with paraphernalia.
++Guiding philosophy engineer the space itself to insure the comfort of its
++MGWA (max gross weight allowance)
++We must leave it all behind. We cannot take our maple-wood
  furniture or even the conception of it.
++Desks, tables, cupboards, sinks, bathtubs, shelves, light fixtures, 
  grown in place as permanent parts of the internal structure.
++Temperature and humidity
++Laundry is disposed of in a pneumatic tube.
++Food - a central kitchen.  via pneumatic tube
++Share stuff we own which is used occasionally via pneumatic delivery system.

++Central nervous system = massively parallel computer.
++Neural network , million co-processors joined as one super-computer.
++One million GSI chips linked in parallel.
  10000 trillion, machine instructions / sec (mips)
++8th generation parallel architecture. VLSI single
  processor computers of 1996 are 4th computer generation.
++Parallel processors will analyze information.
++Neural networks and true parallel operating systems,
  computers start to achieve real AI.
++100million lips (logical inferences/s)
++Control : environmental control, operating automated processes,
  tracking the medical, nutritional, and psychological, needs of
  individual colonists, monitoring the power production facility,
  maintaining platform stability and other tasks.
  work-station for colonists in data-processing and telecommunications.
++Memory to match, optical storage devices.
++Optical disks can store 8million bytes, 4000 pages.
++Operating via satellite links,
++Involve data synthesis
++Split-screen output will enable individuals to see and talk
++Food, shelter, clothing, medical care, education, recreation,
  privacy, and meaning work are all available.

++Doldrums +/-5 of equator.  75-80degrees.
  40" rain, 2000 hours sun/year.
++Withstand a force 12 storm (beaufort scale).  Mooring strong 
  enough to hold in 75+ mph winds and currents of 2.5knots.
  The breakwater platforms will be built to take waves 50' high.
++Global circulation patterns tend to cancel
  each other.
++Zone of convergence.  Air, warmed , tends to rise,
  low pressure zone, barometrically broad and flat.

++Transportation .  Food comes from sea.  Entertainment is provided,
  medical center. Taxes are irrelevant.

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