++Occupy moon Phobos. Earth-Phobos travel energy = Earth-Moon
++Travel in space measured by energy spent not distance.
++Big question is : "How much energy does to get there?" not "How far?" 
++Earth orbit to Martian moons need /\v of 3.2kps.
++27km long and about 20km = Phobos.
++Gravity well = 5m.  Escape velocity = 10m/s (22mph).
++Spins at same rate that it orbits, so keeps the same end pointed to mars.
++Phobos and deimos are both carbonaceous chondrites.
  w/ 16tril tons of supplies, w/ > 3 tril tons of water.
++water down into hydrogen and oxygen . LHOX (liquid hydrogen oxygen).
++Payloads bound for Mars surface use atmosphere as brake.
++Martian space pods will use the same wave rider.
++H2 up from the Earth is a potential solution,
++Mars, H2O (as ice).  60tn will require 5000 km^2 H2O

-------------USE AA/ORBITALS = EARTH/MARS FERRY!!--------
++Earth-Moon /\v of 13.6km/s. 92.5Mjoules
  Mars - Moon needs /\v of 9.4kkps.  44Mjoules.
++Orbital Habitat requirs outposts on the Moon and AA asteroids.
  Settlement of Moon needs outposts on Mars Moons.
  Mars colonies will grow out of ice mining settlements on Mars.
++Minimum energy trajectory to mars takes 8 months = Hohmann Orbits.
++Fusion rockets, thrust = 1g, 2 days, but outrageous amount of energy.
++More economical to set up network of sun orbiting habitats travelling between
  Earth & Mars.  Place a habitat in an orbit carrying between the two planets.
  In such an orbit, an ecosphere serves as a transport vessel.
++26months to cycle between Earth and Mars.  Inbound ships ~30days.
++Once settlementing Mars, we have colonized many (Apollo Amor) AA Asteroids.
++AA's orbits move close to both planets.  Once in right position, 
  a shuttle can reach it Earth or Mars.
++Cycling orbital habitats.
++AA asteroid colonies , together act like a continuous conveyor belt to Mars.

-------------FUSION ENERGY-------------------------------
++Fusion has 2 main attractions
(1) Energy density in a mass of fuel is amazing.  1 kg of
    deuterium has energy of a train-load of coal.
    1 kg of coal = 5500 kcal of energy (boil 40liters of water).
    1 kg of deuterium - 86billion kcal. boil 935 olympic pools.
(2) Deuterium is abundant.  Hydrogen has .02% deuterium.
    5000kgs of H2 has 1kg of deuterium.  
++Jupiter alone contains enough deuterium to produce
  energy as the sun itself for 2000years.
++Preferred fusion reaction is deuterium(D) + helium3(He3) : easiest to start,
  makes greatest amount of energy (18Kev), and makes no dangerous byproduct 
  flux of neutrons.  Problem is it needs He3 - an isotope of helium w/ one 
  extra neutron in nucleus.  He3 is virtually nonexistent on Earth.  ( source 
  of He3 is the fusion of D + D) .  Catch-22 : Need fusion to produce He3, and
  He3 required for fusion.  He3 common in the solar wind, which has infused 
  large quantities of it in the lunar soil.  The presence of He3 on the Moon is
  a boon to space colonization.
++Cycling habitats will take 5-8months.  Traveling between planets on one of 
  the AA asteroid colonies can take years.
++Velocity = 64kps > 10x /\v for minimum energy transfer.  
  Transfer time to Mars is 20-144days.
++Acceleration of 0.1g = reach Mars in just a few days.
++Fusion rockets generate combustion T=100mil'F , and exhaust Vel = ~37000kps.
  Products of fusion of D + He3 is He4 atoms and protons.  Both carry a charge.
  The reaction occurs in a B field.  Make Thrust by expelling these superheated
  ions out a magnetic rocket nozzle.  Single state fusion rocket Vel=30000kps+.

++Thirst for Martian H2O.  In 22nd century, expeditionary forces to Mars.
  Settlements on Deimos and Phobos, providing support for ice miners on Mars.
++Pavonis Mons, sits on the equator. Perfect site for Martian launch facility.
++On Mars, 5kps = escape velocity.  Orbital velocity of Mars is only 3.5kps,
++Payloads leave launch tube@ escape velocity;atmospheric drag @ 27km minimal.
++Right orbit, right seasons, right day; ready-made atmosphere; hidden oceans.
++Pre-manufactured, instant ecosphere.

++In sun's ecosphere H2O and Life can persist. sunshine can support life.
++Only venus, earth, moon, mars and asteroids close enough to the sun to 
  support water-based life.
++If the Earth's axis was not tilted, global climate would settle into stagnant
  stratified system.  Dynamism essential to diverse biosphere.
++Earth's : 23.5degree tilt, Mars 24.5degrees.
++Mars' day 1477min, Earth's 1444min.
++Mars is surrounded by a bubble of air, if that bubble is thickened , 
  Mars can be a living planet.
++Key life forms that would terraform Mars are the algae.

-------------CREATING AN ATMOSPHERE--------------------------------
++James Lovelock - Father of Gaia Hypothesis.
++If life ever existed on Mars, would transform
  Mars into an Earth-like world. w/ oceans in 350,000 years.
++Earth has an atmospheric mass of 5,200 trillion tons.
  Mars' atmosphere weighs 26till tons.
++1000tril tons of gas to Mars' atmosphere creates surface pressure of 3.8psi.
++Oxygen and CO2 are the essential gases. Mars' atmosphere is now 0.2% O2 , 
  and 95% CO2.
++Atmosphere of mostly O2 at 4PSI is possible to create atmosphere.
++Plenty of oxygen available in the rocks and soil.  Heating the
  rocks to > 1000'F.  Baking over a 500000 km^3 of rock.
++Well-defined polar ice caps.
  Martian polar caps have 3000 trillion tons of CO2.
++Liberate CO2 from dry ice requires raising temperature to -60degrees.
++Frozen stores in Martian ice caps is by far the earlier option.
++Brute force approach :
++Microwave antennas over poles beam energy @ dry ice caps, it 
  takes 200000 terawatt hours to vaporize them.
  Substitute mirrors 1300km across. still needs 300 years.
++Need to add 24tril tons of H2O vapor, x2 the mass of the atmosphere.
  dry ice, locked in the polar caps will vaporize.
++Transform the arid red desert , require oceans of water.
++Abundance of water to saturate a ball of rock 6800km across.
++This time in the form of comets.
++Get H2O from a single comet. Comets are 60% H2O by weight.  1 comet, w/ 
  radius of 21km provides H2O needed to reconstitute Mars.
++Gross cometary mass in the solar system, = 1% mass of sun.
++6 comets a year cross the orbit of Mars in the plane the ecliptic.
++Most comets are < 15km in diameter, w/ average diameter of 3-4km.
++Strong arm tactics.  Rocket motor push comet out of its orbit.
++30000 terawatt hours of power.
++Fusion energy at our disposal, deuterium concentrations, 1 part in 5000.
  Deuterium - He fusion Rx yields = 100mil KWh of power/kg.
++Need 300 GW operating continuously.  World's electrical power today < 2.5GW.

-------------SMASH COMETS INTO MARS--------------------------------
++Not necessary to force comets into Mars' orbit.  Many do cross Mars' orbit.
++Tiny impulse to comet at perihelion sets it on radically changed orbital path.
++Path of its orbit by just a few arc seconds.  Tiny 
  change @ perihelion sets comet on collision course w/ Mars.
++H-bombs near the comet; Laser propulsion from solar powered FEL arrays 
  around the sun, solar sails, arrange collisions between comets and asteroids.
++Explosive charges planted in the weak areas.  Charges will be detonated,
  breaking the comet into a number of smaller fragments.
++On impact, ice in the comets and ice held permafrost deep in the Martian soil
  will flash into steam.
++Water vapor, into atmosphere from 2 small comets, will generate a greenhouse 
  effect powerful enough to warm the Martian surface above freezing.
++The comets will raise the water vapor pressure to 6millibars.
  Total atmospheric pressure to 12millibars.
++Dry ice in the polar caps and the permafrost will
  boil away, adding its mas toe the atmosphere.
++CO2 atmosphere will also contribute, adding 15degrees.
++Atmosphere thicker than the Earth's w/ surface temperature of 15C (60F).
  Triggered by the collision of just 2 good size comets.
++Small crater lakes and ponds, number of large lakes,
  several inlands seas, and 1 planet girdling ocean.
++Volcanoes bring steam to the surface as well as lava.
  Volcanic out gassing on Mars, released 3.5x10^17 tons of water.
++1/5 of total H2O released by Mars's volcanos in the soil as permafrost, 
  or underground lenses of ice.
++Bubbles of molten rock creat hot spots in crust, underground ice.
++volume of 60 mil km^3 = 1/3 of planet's surface. This ocean,in frozen slumber,
++liquid water collects in canyons and basins first.
++Boreal Ocean = wide as Atlantic and as deep.  wine-dark seas of Mars.
++Algae/Plants will pioneer planetary ecosphere hospitable for animal life.  
++Genetically engineered plants , designed for a high CO2.
++O2 to support Animal species engineered to tolerate High CO2.
++Humans will need O2 masks.
++Make bubble Ecospheres like the Moon.
++On Mars, contend w/ planetary atmosphere.
++Web of electromagnetic monorails
++Swirling cyclonic cloud patterns, azure seas, rivers, grasslands, and jungles.
++No Pollutants; all wastes must be feed stocks; 
  all closed cycle ecological loops ; all solar power , self-sustaining. 

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