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                Hippocrates: The "Greek Miracle" in Medicine

 I. Historical        II. Formation of the
 Context              Hippocratic Corpus      III. After Antiquity
 IV. The Hippocratic                          VI. The Hippocratics &
 Physician            V. Hippocratic Medicine "Rationalized" Medicine


I. Historical Context

The Hippocratic Corpus consists of some 60 medical treatises, the majority
of them conventionally dated to the later decades of the Fifth Century B.C.,
or to the early decades of the Fourth; that is to say, at the culmination of
the "Classical Period," the time when Pericles was leader of the Athenian
democracy, when Ictinus was designing the Parthenon and the Apollo temple at
Bassae and Phidias finishing his gold and ivory statues of Athene Parthenos
for Ictinus' temple and of the seated Zeus for the temple at Olympia.

To the later Plato and to Aristotle, Hippocrates from the island of Cos was
known as a famous physician, and subsequent tradition sets Hippocrates into
the midst of the intellectual ferment at the end of the Fifth Century. Aulus
Gellius, a Roman rhetorician of the Second Century A.D., puts it this way:

     Then the great Peloponnesian War began in Greece, which Thucydides
     has handed down to memory . . .. During that period Sophocles, and
     later Euripides, were famous and renowned as tragic poets,
     Hippocrates as a physician, and as a philosopher, Democritus;
     Socrates the Athenian was younger than these, but was in part
     their contemporary. (Noctes AtticaeXVII.21, 16-18).

A variety of developments enabled Hippocratic writers to make medicine a
full participant in the so-called "Revolution of Wisdoms" of the latter
Fifth Century B.C. A favorite explanation has long been influence from
Presocratic natural philosophers, for these predecessors and contemporaries
did pioneer techniques for explaining phenomena in the natural world by
means of mechanical processes, summoning analogies that enabled them to see
with the eye of the mind what was hidden from their eyes. The sophists, too,
were important, for those teachers of knowledge and rhetoric spread over the
Greek world at approximately the same time as itinerant Hippocratic
physicians. Sophists' training taught men how to mount a convincing
argument; direct participation in political assemblies and the law courts
gave citizens ample practice in distinguishing between the lesser and the
better argument and in deciding what constituted adequate proof. Important
also seems to be the development of the Hippocratics' medium, the written
prose treatise. In contrast to the writing of poetry, written prose develops
slowly in the Greek world; medical writers, historians, and writers of
political and judicial speeches seize upon it at approximately the same
moment, and in their hands written prose rapidly gains sophistication.


II. Formation of the Hippocratic Corpus

The figure of a concerned and conscientious physician attracted not only a
host of apocryphal legends about his great deeds, but also the heterogeneous
collection of early medical writings known as the Hippocratic Corpus. These
treatises collected under Hippocrates' name in Hellenistic times, certainly
in Alexandria by the middle of the Third Century B.C. Ancient
scholar-physicians who worked on the treatises as glossators and
commentators were bothered by their heterogeneity of styles and their
contradictory contents, and they borrowed methods current in Homeric
criticism to explain them. Some suggested that Hippocrates' life was
prodigiously long (perhaps 109 years!) and that he wrote some treatises when
young and others when old; others conjectured that instead of a single
Hippocrates, there were seven, all members of the same family, writing the
treatises over several generations.

The "best" treatises were judged to be compositions from the hand of "The
Great Hippocrates, Father of Medicine" at the height of his intellectual
powers. Galen, practicing medicine at Rome in the latter half of the Second
Century A.D., is certain, for example, that Hippocrates himself wrote
Epidemics I and III, but that his son Thessalus must have discovered among
his father's papers after the old man's death Epidemics II, IV, and VI in
the form of notes scribbled on skins and wax tablets. The son, Galen
supposes, misunderstood his father's intentions, and although the lad
expanded what he found, what he published remained, in Galen's view,
"unfinished works-in-progress."

Contradictions of fact also bothered subsequent readers, and the earliest
extant references to the Hippocratic Oath, from the First Century A.D., show
that Scribonius Largus, a physician who accompanied the Emperor Claudius to
Britain, and Soranus, a Greek physician who practiced at Rome, worried about
the provision that forbids giving a woman an abortive pessary, especially
when the Oath is juxtaposed to the fact that two writers of embryology in
the Corpus (Fleshes and Nature of the Child) describe aborted fetuses six
and seven days old and acknowledge that they witnessed or caused the
abortions that produced the fetuses.

Neither Scribonius Largus nor Soranus is worried about the historical and
scholarly issues regarding Hippocrates, but they do wonder about what the
oath prescribes for their own practice of medicine in Rome of the
Principate. Each decides that he can summon Hippocrates as authority on the
use of abortives. Scribonius Largus does so to prohibit all abortions,
citing another Hippocratic principle, namely that medicine is the art of
healing, not harming. Soranus decides that the Oath prohibits only abortive
pessaries and that other procedures are permitted when the life of the
mother is in danger, and he adds that he would never prescribe an abortive
to preserve a woman's youthful beauty or to conceal her adulteries.


III. The Corpus after Antiquity

The figure of Hippocrates as "Father of Medicine" remains a potent one in
medical circles throughout antiquity and beyond, although he is increasingly
viewed through Galen's lens, which pictures an Hippocrates who is very much
like Galen himself. Galen's enthusiasm for certain texts in the Hippocratic
Corpus was crucial to the continuing interest later physicians took in
Hippocrates and his writings, and Hippocratic texts were copied in
sufficient numbers to survive into Byzantine times and be reimported into
the West during the Renaissance. Renaissance anatomists, such as Vesalius
and Parť, pointed with scorn to mistaken deductions that Galen drew from his
dissections on animals, and Galen's influence suffered as a result. By
contrast, once the Corpus was translated into Latin early in the Sixteenth
Century, the prestige of Hippocrates and his writings escalated throughout
Europe, as physicians continued the practice, now more than a millennium and
a half old, of combing the Corpus in search of precedents for the medicine
they were themselves currently practicing.

Only in the Twentieth Century have historians of medicine come round to
admitting that there is nothing to connect "Hippocrates," the famous
physician from Cos mentioned by Plato and Aristotle, with any single medical
treatise in our present Hippocratic Corpus. While the historians Herodotus
and Thucydides announce their names--"Herodotus of Halicarnassus" and
"Thucydides the Athenian" being the very first words of their histories--the
medical writers of the Corpus are nameless. They mention place names in the
case histories of the Epidemics, but the towns and villages named are where
their patients lived, from Elis in the western Peloponnese to Thasos in the
northern Aegean and Perinthus and Chalcedon along the northern coast of the
Black Sea. From the Epidemics one gets the impression of itinerant
physicians, working in fairly close contact with one another on the same and
similar medical problems from strikingly similar points of view, but writing
them up in distinctive narrative styles.


IV. The Hippocratic Physician

This picture of the ancient physician coincides with what we know about
doctors from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries B.C. in other sources.
Already in Homer's Iliad Podaleiris and Machaon, sons of Asclepius,
accompany the Greek armada to Troy, where they fight and heal. Machaon's
skill draws the admiring remark that "a healer is worth many men in his
ability / to cut out arrows and smear soothing medicaments on wounds" (Iliad
XI.514-515). A nascent theory of bodily humors, such as we see fully
developed in the Corpus, operates in the epics: balance is a sign of health,
imbalance, a harbinger of disease. CholÍ is both Achilles' anger and the
inner juice his body has accumulated in excess ever since his days as a
nursling at the breast.

Although medicine is an old technÍ, Hippocratics burst upon the medical
scene of the later Fifth Century as full participants in the intellectual
discussions and debates that mark the later Classical Period. They were
agonistic in stance and concerned with self-conscious presentation of their
medical technÍ and with its ability to guide the doctor in a logical
movement from theory to practice; that is, from nosological cause of
diseases and intellectual constructs for human physiology to the
administration of proper curative remedies.


V. Hippocratic Medicine

In common with other intellectuals in the Greek city-states, Hippocratics
are interested in ethnography and far-away places and peoples, in epidemic
diseases and plagues, in the origins of man and embryology, and in
valetudinarian dietetics. Like their contemporaries Euripides and
Aristophanes, Hippocratics are quick to pounce upon causes and remedies that
they consider irrational, and they too express their scorn for earlier ways
of thinking. The writer of Sacred Disease criticizes "witch-docotrs,
faith-healers, quacks and charlatans," whose etiology for epilepsy and
sudden seizures invokes attacks from the gods and whose therapies consist of
purifications, incantations, prohibition of baths, lying on goat-skins and
eating goats' flesh (Sacred Disease 1-2). The writer of Diseases of Young
Girls censures women who follow commands from Artemis' priests to dedicate
costly garments to the goddess in the effort to cure madness in the
premenarchic young girl.

Both medical writers ground their etiology for the diseases in blockage of
inner vessels by a bodily humor; both consider sitting still and having your
feet go to sleep an appropriate analogy for the numbness that extinguishes
the senses in the diseases. Both base treatment on the evacuation of the
noxious fluid from vital areas of the body: the epileptic is to take a
phlemagogue to move excess phlegm gradually from his head so that its sudden
descent into his body doesn't overwhelm his senses, and the young girl is to
sleep with a man as soon as possible to remove the impediment at the mouth
of her uterus, while pregnancy will bring her long-lasting cure by opening
up her body so that her excess fluids can move about freely.


VI. The Hippocratics and "Rationalized" Medicine

Hippocratics find it important to absorb all human diseases within their
medical technÍ, including the very difficult sicknesses of sudden seizures
and premenarchic madness, and to this end they not only assign mechanical
causes that interact with the anatomy and physiology they endorse, but they
also employ therapies that reverse a diseased condition in accordance with
the same mechanical principles. "Opposites cure opposites" is a deliberate
intellectual stance in opposition to the "like cures like" of sympathetic
magic. Hippocratics know how to speak the language of science, and they are
certainly the first in the Western tradition to write medical science in a
form that has survived to our time. They formulate questions that the West
has continued to ask: What makes this person sick? Do women get sick in the
same way as men? We can object that neither a descent of phlegm from the
head as an etiology for epilepsy, nor a fantasy membrane at the mouth of the
uterus in the young girl, is an empirically visible phenomenon; and we can
dismiss the medical content of their science. We cling, however, to some of
their deontology and medical ethics, as summarized in the Hippocratic Oath.

What is important here is that these medical writers are asking not "Who
causes this sickness?" but rather, "By what process does this sickness
occur?" However imaginative their mechanistic explanations may be,
Hippocratics can defend them with arguments that appeal to process, not to a
capricious or malevolent deity, and they can explain the therapies they
prescribe in terms of the actions that their medicaments set in motion.


Ann Ellis Hanson
The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor