History of the Univ. of Bologna Nature and the human body The teaching of Medicine was including in the Arts syllabus following a papal bull in 1219. However Taddeo Alderotti, who had recorded and analysed several clinical cases in his Consilia, had to struggle against the hostility of the jurists and read the texts of Hippocrates and Galen glossing them in the same way as the legal texts were studied. It was only in 1228 that the Town Council gave the physicians the same legal status that the lawyers held. At the beginning of the fourteenth century Mondino de Liucci was the first to give demonstrations of anatomical practice, and in the fifteenth century Jacopo Barigazzi illustrated his works with engravings of "figurative anatomy", which were the first examples of illustrations of anatomy for didactic purposes. In the sixteenth century Gerolamo Cardano came to Bologna; he was a complex figure, a typical Renaissance scientist-magus, who simultaneously studied Astronomy, Astrology and Medicine. However, during the Renaissance the study of "natural magic" (Paracelsus himself was a guest of the Bolognese Studium for a certain period of time) encouraged scientific experiments. In this period Pietro Pomponazzi, the philosopher, defended the study of natural laws against the 'authorities' of theology and traditional philosophy. Another typical figure of this time was Ulisse Aldrovandi, who founded the Botanical Gardens in Bologna. Aldrovandi also contributed to the study of pharmacopoeia, of animals, of fossils and of various natural wonders, which he not only depicted in his famous, beautiful plates but also collected and classified. In the sixteenth century Gaspare Tagliacozzi conducted experiments which were early examples of plastic surgery. The golden age of Bolognese medicine coincides with the teaching of Marcello Malpighi in the seventeenth century. By then he was already using the microscope for his anatomical research, and among his discoveries were splenic corpuscles and kidney glomerules. Malpighi recommended the dissection of corpses to search for the tie between the anatomical state and clinical state and clinical manifestations in illness. At that time the Bolognese Medical School was very famous and Malpighi was awarded membership of the British Royal Society. At the turn of the seventeenth century Anton Maria Valsalva studied the anatomy of the ear, the eye, the aorta and the colon, and proposed a more humane treatment of the mentally ill ( who were no longer considered to be possessed by the devil). Pier Paolo Molonelli was the first person who trained students to operate on corpses. Gian Antonio Galli began the clinical teaching of Obstetrics and made wax models for didactic purposes which are still kept in a University museum. Giovan Battista Morgagni wrote about his studies of the larynx, the aorta, the testicles and bone marrow in his Adversaria Anatomica . Morgagni was however compelled to move to Padova, where he greatly increased that medical school's international fame.