The X-ray Century - December 1896

         [Vol. II, No. 1.  Looking Back at . . . December 1, 1896.]


                    Something About X Rays for Everybody

                              by Edward Trevert

                                  A Review

Edward Trevert has written an interesting book which can be used as a guide
to the construction of x-ray equipment and conducting experiments which
demonstrate the imaging characteristics of x-radiation.

The book was published during the summer of 1896 by Bubier Publishing, Lynn,

In addition to his own original descriptions the author has compiled
articles from the leading electrical journals which include: Bubier's
Popular Electrician, The Electrical World, The Electrical Engineer, The
Electrical Review, Electricity, The Western Electrician, The New York World,
The Boston Post and the Scientific American.

The book consists of three chapters.


             Chapter 1 - The Intensity Coil and the Crookes Tube

This chapter gives detailed instructions on the construction of an induction
intensity coil and the discharge electrodes and condenser which are required
for the production of a high electrical potential.

Also included is a description of the Crookes tube which can be used for
x-ray production. In a discussion first published in the Electrical World,
Elihu Thomson describes an improved design for an x-ray tube which contains
concave cathodes which focus the cathode rays onto a metal anode. This
design should produce more intense radiation with a much smaller actual
source than the conventional Crookes tube. This design is illustrated below.

               [The Thomson variation of the Crookes tube.]


                     Chapter 2 - Experiments with X Rays

This chapter describes how to set up the equipment for x-ray experiments.
There is one interesting sketch by Thomas Edison showing the basic circuit
for energizing a discharge tube. This is reproduced below.

    [Sketch drawn by Thomas A. Edison for energizing a discharge tube.]

The results of many experiments by several investigators are included. These
are illustrated with excellent images, especially of hands.

One especially interesting image is the photograph of the hand of a corpse,
taken by means of the Roentgen rays, by Mr. Haschek and Dr. Lindenthal, in
Professor Franz Exner's physicochemical institute in Vienna. To them belongs
the honor of being the first to apply the wonderful discovery of the
Wurzburg investigator to a new branch of research. The vessels in the
hand--which was the hand of an old woman--are shown by the injection of
Teichmann's mixture, which consists of lime, cinnabar (mercury) and
petroleum. This is shown below.

                       [First angiogram of a hand.]


               Chapter 3 - The Fluoroscope and Other Apparatus

Described here is a basic hand-held fluoroscope (shown below) and other
useful information relating to experiments with x-rays.

                     [A basic hand-held fluoroscope.]



                      [Various types of x-ray tubes.]

                     Some Various Types of X-Ray Tubes.

A large number of tubes have already been employed in different experiments
with, and applications of, the X-rays for photography, and in connection
with the fluoroscope. Mr. G. Seguy has constructed and experimented upon
several types, and he has gathered a collection which is illustrated in "La

There exist at the present time three methods of obtaining the X-rays. That
employed in the very beginning is based on the direct action of the ray. The
second permits of obtaining instantaneity in the radiograph, and is based on
a reflection action. The third is a result of the combination of the first
two methods.

In the accompanying engravings, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
17, 18, 20, 21, 24, 26, 28 and 32 are constructed according to the
principles of the first methods. Nos. 5, 8, 9, 15, 16, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30
employ the second method; that is, the theory of the reflection of the
cathode rays and of the phenomenon of internal electrolysis of the
volatilized molecules. The tubes Nos. 19, 22 and 31 produce X-rays according
to the two combined theories.

The numbers accompanying each tube designate the design of the various
experimenters, as follows: 1 and 2, Crookes ; 3, Seguy; 4, Wood; 5, Seguy;
6, Chabaud-Hurmuzescu; 7, Seguy; 8, Thompson; 9, Seguy; 10, d'Arsonval; 11,
Seguy; 12, Puluj; 13, Seguy; 14, d'Arsonval; 15, Le Roux; 16, 17 and 18,
Seguy; 19, de Rufz; 20, Crookes; 21, 22, 23, Seguy; 24, Roentgen; 25,
Brunet-Seguy; 26, 27, Le Roux; 28, Colardeau; 29, Seguy; 30, Colardeau; 31,
Seguy; 32, Roentgen.


                       Book Reproduction Now Available

A reproduction of this book has been printed and is now available for $16.95

     Medical Physics Publishing Corp.
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In the Nov. 1, 1895 edition of The X-ray Century we examined the history of
gas discharge tubes.

In the Nov. 8, 1895 edition of The X-ray Century we were there when Prof.
Roentgen discovered a new kind of ray.

In the Dec. 1, 1895 edition of The X-ray Century we looked at the
investigation which led Dr. Roentgen to write this paper.

In the Jan. 1, 1896 edition of The X-ray Century we read Prof. Roentgen's
first paper describing the new kind of ray.

In the Feb. 1, 1896 edition of The X-ray Century we watched the word spread
around the world.

In the March 1, 1896 edition of The X-ray Century we saw the first uses of
x-rays for diagnostic purposes in several different countries.

In the April 1, 1896 edition of The X-ray Century we looked on as Becquerel
discovered radioactivity.

In the May 1, 1896 edition of The X-ray Century we were there as a writer
from McClure's Magazine interviewed Dr. Roentgen.

In the June 1, 1896 edition of The X-ray Century we read Dr. Roentgen's
second paper describing the ability of the x-rays to electrify air and other

In the Sept.1, 1896 edition of The X-ray Century we read an article by Dr.
Lodge explaining how the x-rays work.