---------------1. FUSION ROCKETS-------------------
++Atmosphere is an endoplasmic membrane of unicellular photosynthetic organism Gaia
++Million years from now
puny race will have attained Kardashev level 3, human numbers 1x10^34.
++Interstellar flight is the province of solar  civilizations.
++Fusion powered clippers, capable of speed > 300kps
++@300kps, to nearest star = 4200yrs.
++World ships, generation ships.
Spend few 100 years to get tech, then build fast ships to cross void in
10s of years.
++30000kps, 10%c, .1c if you can't travel at least this fast, don't bother 
++Fusion rockets, atomic nuclei expelled at 10000kps.
then a rocket exhaust w/ that velocity can be produced, To reach 10% speed of 
light, a ship achieve 3x own exhaust velocity. 10000 ton payload
in 40000 ton structure would require 1mil tons of fuel.
---------------2. PROPULSION SYSTEMS---------------
++Nuclear pulse propulsion, beamed energy drives, solar sail starships,
fusion ramjets, interstellar ion scoops, gravitation wormholes.

---------------3. THE ULTIMATE FUEL----------------
 The ultimate fuel

++Gamma effects include an increase in mass, slowing of the passage
of time, and a contraction in the direction of motion.
++++As velocities increase > 90% c .9c , gamma rises
more and more rapidly.
++Foreshortening effects of the FitzGerald contraction are 
too mind bending to include here.

 The Hull

++Comprehensive library of human knowledge.
++Frozen samples of DNA
++Robotic factories like sophisticated unifabs, hard to produce high-tech
equipment like fusion reactors.
++45 yrs after the cargo ships have departed, smaller,
faster ships will leave, carrying the human colonists
at .5c
++Constant acceleration of 1g clipper 6mo to get to .5c
++Each person needs 50tons of antimatter fuel to make this trip.
++<.0002% of the gross solar system product.
++One or two hundred people are more than enough to found a thriving solar system
++Exponential explosion of virtually the sole province of life.
++Rate of growth not exceeding 8%, 150colonists can
produce a population the size of the present Earth's in just over two 
++Population w/ 100 child bearing adults enough for
gene pool diversification.
++Rigil kent first astral port of call
(1) set sights on nearest star
(2) secure foothold in galaxy a star of the same type as our own sun.
(3) We establish our first galactic outpose in a place where resources for
colonization are likely to be incredibly rich.
+3rd star in the triple system Rigil Kent C 
Proxima Centauri our closest stellar neighbor.
++Enrico Fermi - "Where is everybody"
++Earthlike worlds are rarer than sapphires in sand piles.
++Like bees swarming to nectar of opulent blossom they would quickly
zero in on our sweet world.
++Any life form will, by definition, be dependent on energy.
++No ETs have ever called on our planet.
++Civilization - just now at the crackling dawn of the telecommunications age
already raises a radio din of astronomic proportions.
++a K2 civilization would look like a radio quasar inside the galaxy.
++SETI ( Search for extra terrestrial intelligence.
++Detect K2 signals in the form of laser pulses, gamma rays,
cosmic rays or neutrinos.
++No signals; no aliens.
++Napoleon's time-honored maxim : That battle is incidental
to the decisive question of supply.  A K2 culture - able to 
harness whole solar flares at will - can easily fry any
unwelcome raiders.
++Information - theory reduces the nebulous concept of information to
exact mathematical quantities relating to message
length and content.
Meaning can be interpreted as a level of probability.
++Genesis DNA would take 10^360 chemical reactions.
++Of highly complex, self-replicating material is just as unlikely to
occur as our ofrm.
++Universe is a probability field, The future is an
infinite continuum of possibilities.